On viXra log we have been having some lengthy discussions on energy conservation in classical general relativity. I have been trying to convince people that Energy is conserved, but most of them who have expressed an opinion think that energy is not conserved, or that the law of conservation of energy is somehow trivial in general relativity with no useful physical content.
I am going to have one more try to show why energy is conserved and is not trivial by tackling the question of energy conservation in cosmology. Some physicists have claimed that energy conservation is violated when you look at the cosmic background radiation. This radiation consists of photons that are redshifted as the universe expands. The total number of photons remains constant but their individual energy decreases because it is proportional to their frequency ( E = hf ) and the frequency decreases due to redshift. This implies that the total energy in the radiation field decreases, but if energy is conserved, where does it go? The answer is that it goes into the gravitational field, but to make this answer convincing we need some equations.
If the radiation question is not strong enough, what about the case of the cosmological constant, also known as dark energy? With modern precision cosmological observation it is now known that the cosmological constant is not zero and that dark energy contributes about 70% of the total non-gravitational energy content of the observable universe at the current cosmological epoch. (We assume here a standard cosmological model in which the dark energy is a fixed constant and not a dynamic field.) As the universe expands, the density of dark energy stays constant. This means that in an expanding region of space the total dark energy must be increasing. If energy is conserved, where is this energy coming from? Again the answer is that it comes from the gravitational field, but we need to look at the equations.
These are questions that surfaced relatively recently. As I mentioned in my history post, the original dispute over energy conservation in general relativity began between Klein, Hilbert and Einstein in about 1916. It was finally settled by about 1957 after the work of Landau, Lifshitz, Bondi, Wheeler and others who sided with Einstein. After that it was mostly discussed only among science historians and philosophers. However, the discovery of cosmic microwave background and then dark energy have brought the discussion back, with some physicists once again doubting that the law of energy conservation can be correct.
Energy in the real universe has contributions from all physical fields and radiation including gravity and dark energy. It is constantly changing from one form to another, it also flows from one place to another. It can travel in the form of radiation such as light or gravitational waves. Even the energy loss of binary pulsars in the form of gravitational waves has been observed indirectly and it agrees with experiment. None of these processes is trivial and energy is conserved in all cases. But what about energy on a truely universal scale, how does that work?
On scales larger than the biggest galactic clusters, the universe has been observed to be very close to homogeneous and isotropic. Furthermore, 3 dimensional space is flat on average as far as we can tell, and it is expanding uniformly. Spacetime curvature and gravitational energy on these large scales comes purely from the expansion component of space as a function of time. The metric for this universe is
is an expansion factor that increases with time (For full details see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedmann_equations)
In a previous post I gave the equation for the Noether current in terms of the fields and an auxiliary vector field that specifies the time translation diffeomorphisms. The Noether current has a term called the Komar superpotential but for the standard cosmology this is zero. The remaining terms in the zero component of the current density come from the matter fields and the spacetime curvature and are given by
The first term is the mass-energy from cold matter, (including dark matter) at density . The second term is the energy density from radiation. The third term is dark matter energy density and the last term is the energy in the gravitational field. Notice that the gravitational energy is negative. By the field equations we know that the value of the energy will be zero. This equation is in fact one of the Freidmann equations that is used in standard cosmology.
If you prefer to think of total energy in an expanding region of spacetime rather than energy density, you should multiply each term of the equation by a volume factor
It should now be clear how energy manages to be conserved in cosmology on large scales even with a cosmological constant. The dark energy in an expanding region increases with the volume of the region that contains it, but at the same time the expansion of space accelerates exponentially so that the negative contribution from the gravitational field also increases in magnitude rapidly. The total value of energy in an expanding region remains zero, and therefore constant. This is not a trivial result because it is equivalent to the Friedmann equation that captures the dynamics of the expanding universe.
So there you have it; the cosmological energy conservation equation that everybody has been asking about is just this
= + + –
It is not very complicated or mysterious, and it’s not trivial because it describes gravtational dynamics on the scale of the observable universe.
In this equation
- is the universal expansion factor as a funcrtion of time normalised to 1 at the current epoch.
- is the total mass in the expanding volume
- is the cosmic radiation energy density fixed at the current epoch
- is the cosmological constant.
- is a gravitational coupling constant.